Volume 10, No. 1 & 2, 2013

Journal of International Politics and Development Index Vol. 10, No. 1 and 2, June 2013
Analysis of Environmental Health and Policy Issues in Canada
By Emmanuel A. Iyiegbuniwe, Ph.D. and Robert Dibie, Ph.D.

This paper examines the impact of selected environmental health policies in Canada. It provides an extensive review of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which emphasizes the use of precautionary principles. The paper discusses three case studies of environmental public health importance (Children’s environmental health, Bisphenol A, and Tar Sands of Alberta) and the research that reveals ongoing challenges to human health protection and environmental risk management with emphasis on their policy implications. The paper advocates the use of participatory research to resolve on-going environmental health problems in local communities with deep distrust of government and industry experts. The concluding section of the paper recommends the development and implementation of simple exposure and hazard assessment tools to set priorities for systematically identifying substances of highest priorities due to their potential to cause adverse public health and environmental effects.

Globalization and Corporate Social Responsibility: Transnational Corporations and Legitimacy Crisis
By Felix M. Edoho, Ph.D.

This paper examines the corporate social responsibility issues and the legitimacy crisis facing oil TNCs in Nigeria. It argues that neglect of CSR by oil TNCs has exacerbated environmental destruction and unsustainable livelihoods in the Niger Delta Region (NDR) of Nigeria.  Consequently, the legitimacy of oil TNCs is being challenged.  Communities in the NDR are demanding corporate social responsibility (CSR) and environmental accountability from oil TNCs. They have blown up oil installations, kidnapped oil workers, killed security operatives, and engaged the military in open combat.  These have unsettled the Nigerian oil industry and contributed to the instability in the global oil market.   Embracing CSR is a key to contain legitimacy crisis. Subsequent discussions are organized as follows: conceptual and theoretical framework; context of legitimacy crisis; Niger Delta region; oil TNCs and legitimacy crisis; ecological ramifications of the oil sector; and conclusion. 

Faith-Based Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Women Empowerment in Nigeria
By Justina Sam Okere, Ph.D.

This paper examines the role faith-based NGOs play in the empowerment of women in Nigeria. It used focus group, interview, and survey research instruments to conduct analysis of the role of faith based NGOs in the empowerment of women in Nigeria. The research was conducted in the six geo political zones in Nigeria. It explored types of discrimination that women face in Nigeria. It analyzes the religious, social and economic factors that militate against the integration of women into senior leadership positions in both the public and private sectors in the Nigeria. The paper stresses that the public, private sectors and NGOs in Nigeria need to introduce diversity management programs as a policy at the national and state  government levels in order to engage women in the urban and rural areas in its process of seeking sustainable development. The paper suggests that no development process will be totally beneficial to a nation if it does not involve women. The concluding section recommends some policies that could effectively reduce the psychological, physical abuse, and discrimination against women in Nigeria as well as stimulate and integrate talented women’s interests in the social, economic, leadership, and political development of Nigeria

Economic and Social Impact of Environmental Policies in Trinidad and Tobago
By Robert Dibie, Ph.D.

This paper examines sustainable environmental issues in Trinidad and Tobago. It explores how environmental changes have been one of the most complex challenges facing Trinidad and Tobago. The paper uses interviews and survey questionnaire data to present an argument that Trinidad and Tobago will bear the brunt of the effect of environmental changes, even as it strive to overcome poverty and advance economic growth. The paper has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the economic and social impact of environmental issues and policies in Trinidad and Tobago.  The second objective is to evaluate the nature of sustainable environmental policies in Trinidad and Tobago. The paper concludes with a discussion of the survey results, limitations, and directions for future sustainable environmental research in the country. The future challenging goal for Trinidad and Tobago is the search for environmental pollution solutions and comprehensive new policies. Sustainable transformation in the future would require the industrial sector, governments, NGOs, and the citizens to act now, act differently, and act together.

Analysis of Urban Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa
By Terefe Z. Abebe, Ph.D. and Kassa T. Alemu, Ph.D.

This paper examines the problem of youth unemployment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It argues that there is higher percentage of female unemployment than for their male counterparts. This trend in the country may result in girl’s vulnerability to other social problems. The paper used secondary data and a survey of employed and unemployed youth, as well as key-informant interviews with members of government, the private sector and NGOs to solicit a wide variety of information about the trends and employment intervention efforts. The findings show that the public sector, private sector and NGOs played a significant role in creating jobs and reducing youth unemployment. However, government policy intervention has not effectively galvanized the private sector and NGOs to create more jobs for youths. In addition, their engagement mainly focuses on supply side intervention and less emphasis has been given to demand side and matching innovation. The paper recommends that the government, private sector and NGOs should establish a mechanism for a better and efficient approach to providing youth employment all over Ethiopia and in Addis Ababa in particular.

China Foreign Aid to Africa: Analysis of the Social and Economic Impact of the Tazara Project in Tanzania
By Chucka Enuka, Ph.D. and Onwute Ifeoma, Ph.D. 

The paper examines Chinese aid relationship with Africa in the Tanzania-Zambia Railway (Tazara) aid project. It analyzes the socio-economic impact of the lives of the people of Tanzania. Following President Nyerere’s visits and appeals to China, in 1967, China agreed to finance the project. The paper adopts the interdependence theory as a framework for the analysis of Chinese aid and relationship with Africa. The findings of this paper indicate that the railway aid project was significant in a number of positive ways, and therefore, contributed to the development of the economy and the state of Tanzania. The Chinese involvement in the project demonstrated that despite the ravages of the Cultural Revolution, and the effect that this had on Chinese foreign policy, China remained committed to Africa.

Analysis of Knowledge Management and Market Culture in Jamaica
By Sheron Lawson, Ph.D.

This paper examines knowledge management in the banking industry in Jamaica. It argues that an increasing number of organizations are incorporating knowledge management as a core strategy to enhance their organizational competitive advantage.  The research reveals that organizational culture is a major barrier to creating and leveraging knowledge assets.  This paper purported that the banking industry has been successful in recovering from the financial crisis because most of them have a market culture and therefore they are excellent at managing their knowledge assets. The implications of this study can be of significant value to organizations as they prepare to implement knowledge management initiatives. The findings could help organizations assess the likelihood that implementation of knowledge management initiatives will be successful or will increase the organization’s competitive advantage in relation to the current organizational culture.

Gender Politics, Media and Democracy in Nigeria
By Lenshie, Nsemba Edward, Ph.D. and Sarah Gambo, Ph.D. 

This paper examines gender politics in modern democracy in Nigeria. It argues that despite the increasing awareness and participation among women in the electoral politics, their representation has continued to remain low at all levels of government affairs. The paper argues that the media can expand the democratic slots for women through an aggressive promotion of their rights on the Nigerian political stage rather than being pessimistic in approaching the issues that affect women representation. The paper concludes that democracy can be more effective when women are given opportunity in the political forum and governance in Nigeria.

BOOK REVIEW

Book Title: Comparative Perspectives on   Environmental Policies and Issues. New York, N.Y.: Routledge Press, by Professor Robert Dibie, 487 pages.
Reviewed by Felix Akojie, Ph.D. West Kentucky Community and Technical College
USA

Comparative Perspective on Environmental Policies and Issues written by Professor Robert Dibie tackles the current and emerging trends in environmental policies and issues with the most comprehensive scholarship available. Professor Dibie gives practitioners and students a behind the scene looks at day-to-day environmental operations in several countries. The book examines environmental policy implementation, and the procedures undertaken across various levels of governments in several developed and developing countries. With a strong emphasis on environmental ethics, and environmental health the book introduces the theories and scholarly literature of the field while reflecting the latest trends and issues. The book is packed full with hands on application. Although the content of the book is well researched and the information professionally presented, I would have love to see maps of the countries discussed in the chapters. It would have been very helpful for the readers to see more photos of the relationship between human and the environment in all the countries researched. Despite these minor limitations, I understand that the publisher may require some limits to the words and photos that could be included in a text of this nature. I particularly like the author’s comment on the relationship between population and environmental pollution. Population, urbanization and urban centers exert both positive and negative environmental impacts. These impacts depend strongly on how human beings consume goods, utilize resources, produce goods, transport materials, and deal with waste.