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Volume 9, No. 1 & 2, 2011

Journal of International Politics and Development Index Vol. 9, No. 1,  2011
Social Impact of Environmental Health Policy in Brazil
By Robert Dibie, Ph.D., William Mello, Ph.D. and Galia Benitez

This paper examines the social impact of environmental health policy in Brazil. Although several studies have explored environmental issues in Brazil, few have critically examined the social impact of environmental health policy in the nation. With the aid of 876 in-depth surveys, this study contends that although environmental scientists have learned about the behavior of contaminant in the environment, their chemicals, physical transformation, and their movement with or between environmental media, such contaminants in air and water continues to affect the social and health of citizens. This paper draws on data from several communities in Brazil and conducts a cross-national comparison of the social impact of environmental health policy. In addition, the study explores the following question: To what extent does environmental health affect the social activities and lives of citizens in major industries in Brazil? What are the barriers to effectively implementing environmental health policies in Brazil? How can these barriers be overcome? What factors would help foster a sustainable environmental health policy in the nation?

Medical Tourism: The Panacea for Health Disparities and Cost-Containment.
By Emeka O. C. Nwagwu, Ph.D. and Avius Caroll

This paper examines the costs of various medical procedures in several countries those of the United States costs for the same procedures in tourist destinations such as India, Singapore, and Thailand. The study proposes reforming the U.S. healthcare payment system, especially the Medicaid program that caters mostly to the poor, with accommodation for Medicaid funds being used to pay for overseas medical services which are considerably cheaper than costs in the U.S. system. It contends that. The loss of intellectual capital has added to the burden of diseases disproportionately borne by the less developed countries. The consolation is the sudden realization that foreign physicians and other medical professionals are now re-emigrating back to their home countries, where they are using the skills acquired overseas in providing high quality care to enhance the health of their people, operating state- of-the- art-hospitals, and in providing quality care that international patient-tourists are now choosing their vacation spots to correspond with places where adequate medical care is available.

Exploring the Challenges and Prospects of Transforming Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia
By Sisay Asefa, Ph.D. and Elizabeth Ayalew

This paper examines the current situation in higher education in Ethiopia. It calls for reform in local Higher Education Institutions to overcome the challenges and improve academic quality in the nation. One of the alternatives of such potential transformation in higher education proposed is academic linkages and constructive engagements with international academic communities. It recommends that such an engagement should be driven by the intellectual Diaspora in the international arena based on the needs of home universities and colleges. With the general objective of stimulating reflection on several major issues related to changes and the subsequent challenges in higher education, this paper examines the developments that the Ethiopian Higher Education system has undergone in light of the global demands that continue to impose changes on the system. It discusses internationalization of Higher Education as a means of coping with these changes and suggests particular actions that can be employed to engage the Diaspora and promote internationalization within Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia.

Party Funding and Electoral Strength in Nigeria: The Politics of Resources 1999-2009
by Animashaun M. Adekunle

This paper examines the issue of money is a necessary ingredient of politics in all democracies especially Nigeria. It argues that without money many of the activities associated with democratic politics such as voter mobilization, political recruitment and organizing public opinion cannot take place. Political parties as critical institutions of representative democracy require funds to perform their democratic functions. This paper investigates party funding in Nigeria since her return to constitutional rule in 1999. It contends that the resource base of political parties rather than their penetrating organizational capacity has been the major determinant of electoral success of parties in the period under review. Given the unequal nature of access to political funds by political parties, the relatively well-resourced parties tend to enjoy a preeminent presence in the electoral market. The paper also argues that if this trend continues, it may foreclose the possibility of power alternation while it creates hegemony of established and well-resourced parties.

Capital Intensive Technology: A Critical Resource for Fostering Growth in Developing Countries
by Albert O. Assibey-Mensah, Ph.D.

This paper is rooted in the economic premise, noting that, the intense use capital can't only become sufficiently capable, but that, dynamically, it can also foster economic growth. In developing nations, complementary linkages between education and industry can engender proactive economies oriented to strategic programs rooted in knowledge and innovation. In effect, addressing agricultural industrialization using capital intensive enterprises constitutes a clear departure from existing technology. Using vertical integration and supply chains of activities, value-added programs will prevail. Given abundant agricultural outputs, developing nations could derive enormous benefits from capital intensive programs. Steadily, agricultural industrialization can accord productivity based on manufacturing sector's contributions. Through consistent coordination, infrastructures in education and training should capably address innovation. In promoting equity, the critical need exists in promoting investments and jobs that cause social progress. In rural regions, socially progressive program can stave off out-migrations with amenities that have mostly benefited urban enterprises.

Financial, Economic Incentives, Staff Participation and Withdrawal in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Jamaica
by Josephine Dibie, ABD.

This paper examines some of the financial and motivational factors that led to high turnover, participation in and withdrawal from non-governmental organizations' (NGOs) projects in Jamaica. It explores what motivates the behavior of volunteers in several NGOs in Jamaica. The paper relied on two sets of information sources in Jamaica: (1) A structured personal interview with over five hundred foundations and NGOs managers, volunteers and regular (paid staff) in Jamaica; (2) administration of one thousand questionnaires. It argues that the existence of a psychological contract combined with well-known difficulties in mandating volunteers' behavior might cause volunteers to perceive a breach of such contract seriously. The major questions addressed in the study are: In what ways can extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors be used to understand the behavior and performance of volunteers working for NGOs in Jamaica? What are the barriers to NGOs participation in the sustainable development processes in Jamaica? The last section of the study provides some suggestions on how NGOs chief executives should fulfill volunteer contracts. Finally the study suggests that administrators of NGOs should make economic incentive changes that could help to motivate and retain volunteers and dedicated employees.

Index Vol. 9, No. 2, 2011

The Impact of Contested Governance on Development in South Sudan
by Elke Grawert, Ph.D.

This paper examines the contested system of governance in southern Sudan. It argues that regional autonomy with the option of independence of South Sudan after the January 2011 referendum is the crucial way to establish a stable shared governance political system for southern Sudan. The paper contends that new southern Sudan government should receive fifty per cent share of oil revenues generated from oil production in Southern Sudan. It is very important for the new government to ensure that building infrastructure and delivering social services while holding revenues subject to public accountability are priority issues for the development of southern Sudan. The analysis shows that the GOSS and its ministries have been left with little opportunities to draft their own political agenda. They have proven incapable to negotiate from a strong position with international aid agencies and the sub-regional powers. The paper explained that some of the reasons for this lie within the structure of the GOSS as an emerging government from civil war, but also in the role of the international aid agencies in South Sudan.

Economic and Social Impact of Environmental Issues in the United States 
by Robert Dibie, Ph.D. and Mary Bourke, Ph.D

This paper examines the social and economic impact of environmental issues in the United States. A well-articulated argument unfolds concerning natural environmental issues versus policies that continue to affect the social and economic affairs of US citizens. It is necessary to understand the conflict and struggles to construct and revise environmental policy in this country; in order to, create appropriate solutions for the twenty-first century. A transformation has occurred regarding our emphasis on environmental issues such as clean water and clean air; as a result, we have evolved to a marked international focus on concerns of global warming, ozone depletion, trans-broader pollution, and decreasing biological diversity. Consequently, this paper provides a concluding section with recommendations on the importance of how national economic development must incorporate environmental considerations.

The Potential of Biodiversity for the Sustainable Development of Ethiopia
By Kassahun Embaye

The paper examines the potential of biodiversity management in Ethiopia. It argues that the actual and potential contribution of biodiversity to the socio-economic development of Ethiopia and its environment is essential for the nation's growth. It contends that the need to sustain the biological resource is very important for Ethiopia to effectively achieve sustainable development in the twenty-first century. Biodiversity conservation, sustainable utilization, access, and benefit sharing efforts being made by the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation are highlighted as essential prerequisites for sustainable development in Ethiopia. Achievement and maintenance of perpetual harmony between economic prosperity and biodiversity resource base wellbeing is recommended as a precondition for the sustainable development of Ethiopia.

Corporate Social Accountability in Developing Countries
by Edwin Ijeoma, Ph. D.

This paper examines public and co-operate social responsibility from the perspective of documented cases of some government's inability to holding foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) accountable in their states of operation. The paper argues that, following the peculiar characteristics and uniqueness of the operations of the MNCs, special attention should be given towards formulating laws and regulations that would gauge the governments' commitments to protection of human rights and the environments on behalf of its citizens and at the same time, check unfriendly human and environmental behavior of the MNCs, perceived or real Such institutional failures are evident in a number of cases involving multinational corporations with operations in South Africa, India, Costa Rica and Ecuador and many other developing countries especially those in Africa. The cases reveal some reasonable level of weak and un-enforceable laws and regulations operating in these countries. This had for many decades resulted in lapses in accountability by governments and foreign investors; environmental degradation and unchecked danger to public health. The paper also explored the need to examine some of the foreign direct investment activities of MNC in African countries. It recommends that African government should scrutinize MNCs activities more in the continent as well as set higher expectations for them. Regulatory reform is not enough, government must do more to hold MNCs accountable.

Perspectives on Federalism in Nigeria
by Agha Eresia-Eke, and Shaganmu Saturday Eberiye

This paper examines the concept of federalism in Nigeria. It is an important part of both normative and empirical political theory. The concept of federalism will have a long future in social science research, if its place in empirical theory and research is recognized. The paper argues that many social issues facing communities proved to be beyond the responsibility and capacity of a single level or type of government, or of the private sector. In the twenty-first century, government and private sector organisations may have to try and work together to manage difficult problems in their communities. Consequent on this therefore, it is the aim of this paper to bring to the forefront, various perspectives of the concept (federalism) as seen by different scholars. The benefit of this approach is two folds namely: it offers a variety of views on same subject-matter as well as enhance the understanding of what out of the varied views has come to be the most generally accepted perspective of the subject of discuss. A sub-concern of this paper is the identification of any principle of federalism that could support an introduction of rotational presidency in Nigeria following recent political agitations.

BOOK REVIEW

Book Title: Obamaenon: The Gospel of 'Global' Change, Hope, Understanding and Leadership for a Networking World
by Zakeh S. Gbotokuma, Ph.D.
Reviewed by Robert Kamkwalala, Ph.D., Harris-Stowe State University, St. Louis, USA.

This book was written about President Barack Obama. The author refers to him as the transactional and transformational leader of the 21st century in the history of the United States. According to the author President Obama has been instrumental in changing the lives, perceptions, ideologies, thinking and dreams of not only millions of Americans but also people across the world. Being an African American or a black person of color, the 44th president of America has proved beyond any reasonable doubt that anything is possible in America. The author contends that if one has the right attitude and the will to achieve his/her dreams he/she can make it in America. There is no better place on this planet other than America where this could come true. Since the book was been recently published, it would have been a good idea to include a separate chapter highlighting the promises made in the election campaign by President Obama to the American people. Such a chapter should have vividly evaluated his performance to find out whether or not he has been able to fulfill his promises so far. Economic issues like higher gas prices coupled with unprecedented unemployment figures and lingering home mortgage crisis are just some of the intriguing issues that has directly affected his rating with the American voters.

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